WITH record fines dished out over tech firms’ use of personal data, and their public images becoming increasingly tarnished, this was the year the world started to turn against its tech giants.

At the beginning of 2019, France’s National Commission on Informatics and Liberty hit Google with a €50 million fine for lack of valid consent and transparency around personalised ads. In October, Facebook agreed to pay a fine of £500,000 to the UK Information Commissioner’s Office for failing to protect users’ personal information relating to the Cambridge Analytica scandal. Although the firm didn’t admit fault over data misuse, this is the largest fine that could be issued.